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Лингвистические термины

Лексика

Лексика – совокупность слов языка, его словарный состав. Этот термин используется и по отношению к отдельным пластам словарного состава ( лексика бытовая, деловая, поэтическая и т.д.), и для обозначения всех слов,  употреблённых каким-либо писателем (лексика Пушкина) или в каком-либо одном произведении (лексика «Слова о полку Игореве»).

Лексика является предметом изучения лексикологии, семасиологии и ономасиологии. Лексика прямо иди косвенно отражает действительность, реагирует на изменения в общественной, материальной и культурной жизни народа. Лексика постоянно пополняется новыми словами для обозначения новых предметов, явлений, процессов, понятий. В лексике находят отражение социально-классовые, профессиональные, возрастные различия внутри языкового коллектива. В соответствии с этим лексика подразделяется по принципу принадлежности к различным социальным диалектам: жаргон, арго, сленг и т.д. В лексике отражается принадлежность носителей языка к разным территориальным диалектам, а также сохраняются специфические, местные особенности речи. Изучением  этих особенностей занимается диалектология.

При изучении исторического развития лексики можно отметить, что старые слова  отходят на второй план или исчезают совсем, с другой стороны – идёт пополнение словарного запаса. В результате этих изменений прирост слов всегда превышает их убыль. Новые в языке слова называются неологизмами; сделавшись общеупотребительными, закрепившись в языке, они теряют качество новизны и входят в основной словарный фонд.

Слова основного словарного фонда различны по своим истокам.

Происхождение слов в языке изучает этимология. Изменения в лексике происходят постоянно. Каждый период развития языка характеризуется своим словарным составом, объединяющим устаревшие слова, которые вместе с другими словами, понятными, но не употребляемыми, образуют пассивную лексику, и слова, которые не только понимают, но и  употребляют,  образуют активную лексику.

С точки зрения плана содержания в лексике выделяются: знаменательные слова и служебные. Первые обладают номинативной функцией, способны выражать понятия и выступать в роли членов предложения; вторые лишены этих признаков. Употребляются в лексике также и абстрактные слова, т.е. слова с обобщённым значением. Далее идут синонимы, т.е. слова близкие или совпадающие по значению, но по-разному звучащие. Затем следуют антонимы – слова противоположные по значению. Различаются также и гипонимы – слова, организованные по принципу подчинения значений.

С точки зрения плана выражения в лексике выделяются: 1) омонимы, слова одинаковые по произношению, но не связанные по значению; 2) омографы – разные слова, одинаковые по написанию. Но различающиеся по произношению (ударению или звуковому составу); 3) омофоны – разные слова, различающиеся по написанию, но совпадающие по произношению; 4) омоформы  – разные грамматические формы слов, совпадающие по звуковому облику; 5) паронимы – слова, сближаемые по фонетико-графическому и морфемному составу.

В каждом языке лексика дифференцируется стилистически. Стилистически нейтральные слова могут употребляться в любом стиле речи и составляют основу словаря. Другие слова – стилистически окрашенные – могут быть «высокого» или «низкого» стиля, могут быть ограничены определёнными типами речи, условиями речевого обращения или жанрами литературы.

Источники пополнения лексики для разных языков различны. Для русского языка – это славянизмы, профессионализмы, интернационализмы, термины, просторечные слова, диалектизмы, жаргонизмы и т.д.

В пределах лексики особое место занимают фразеологизмы, источниками которых являются фольклор, профессиональная речь, мифология, художественная литература. Термины и идиомы – два противоположных по своим свойствам пласта лексики. Первые, как правило, однозначны, абстрактны, стилистически и экспрессивно нейтральны; вторые – конкретны, многозначны, индивидуальны и экспрессивны.

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