Categories
Лингвистические термины

Язык

Язык – основной объект изучения языкознания. Под языком имеют в виду естественный, человеческий язык. Возникновение  и существование языка  неразрывно связано с возникновением и существование человека.

Термин «язык»  имеет по крайней мере два взаимосвязанных значения: 1) язык вообще, язык как определённый класс знаковых систем; 2) конкретный, так называемый этнический язык, используемый в некотором социуме, в некоторое время и в некотором пространстве. Существенно, что язык, обладая внутренней целостностью и единством, является полифункциональной системой. Среди функций языка важнейшими можно считать те, которые связаны с основными операциями над информацией – созданием, хранением и передачей информации. Язык является основной общественно значимой  формой отражения окружающей человека действительности и самого себя, а также средством получений новых знаний о действительности.  В то же время язык является основным средством человеческого общения, средством передачи информации от говорящего к слушающему. В силу этого свойства языки естественным образом согласованы с потребностями и условиями протекания коммуникативной деятельности человека.

Различают следующие формы существования конкретных языков: идиолект – индивидуальный язык одного конкретного носителя языка; говор – множество структурно очень близких идиолектов, обслуживающих одну небольшую территорию; диалект – множество говоров.

На определённом этапе национального или социального развития некоторые стихийно развивающиеся языки вступают в высшую форму своего существования – форму литературного языка. Живых языков в социально признанном смысле насчитывается от 3 до 7 тысяч ( такие колебания связаны с  различиями  в принципах их разграничения). Языки постоянно претерпевают изменения  во всех звеньях своей структуры, происходит их  непрерывное историческое развитие.

Все существующие и существовавшие ранее  человеческие языки могут быть разбиты на группы по принципу родства, т.е. происхождения от определённой языковой традиции (праязыков). Близкое родство часто является очевидным для самих носителей языков, отдалённое –  требует специального научного доказательства.

Звуковая материя  является первичной субстанцией человеческого языка, системы письменности  – вторичны. Репертуар звуков и составляющих их признаков ограничен возможностями речевого аппарата человека. При всём  разнообразии лексических и грамматических значений в конкретных языках обнаруживается их повторяемость. Языки как бы заново открывают одни и те же элементы смысла. Мир лексических значений закреплён в лексике языка. Однако язык  едва ли выполнил бы своё назначение, если бы располагал только лексическими средствами номинации. Этот механизм обеспечивает грамматика, состоящая из грамматических значений и системы правил. Два тесно связанных компонента структуры языка – словарь и грамматика. Их согласованность определяется общностью их основных функций.

Ввиду наличия единой универсальной базы в устройстве конкретных языков, естественно, что внутренние структуры их обладают большим или меньшим  числом сходных или тождественных черт. Языки, которые обнаруживают  структурную общность,  образуют одну структурную группу (типологический класс). Хотя типологическая классификация, в отличие  от генетической, не всегда отражает реальные связи между конкретными языками, она является одним  из существенных инструментов индуктивно-дедуктивного изучения и представления сущностных свойств языка вообще.

63 replies on “Язык”

I have learn some just right stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how much effort you put to create this sort of magnificent informative website. However, Domain Authority (Moz) is a parameter to check the ranking in Google. If you want to increase your DA at very low cost, please check out on profile link.

This is very interesting, You are a very professional blogger.
I’ve joined your feed and stay up for seeking extra of your excellent
post. Additionally, I have shared your web site in my social networks

My developer is trying to convince me to move to .net
from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the costs.
But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using WordPress on various websites for
about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform.
I have heard good things about blogengine.net.
Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress content into it?

Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!

What i don’t understood is actually how you’re not actually a lot more smartly-favored
than you might be now. You’re very intelligent. You realize thus
significantly in terms of this matter, made me in my opinion consider it from numerous numerous angles.

Its like women and men don’t seem to be interested until it’s something to do with Lady gaga!
Your own stuffs outstanding. Always take care of it up!

Somebody essentially lend a hand to make seriously articles I might state.
This is the first time I frequented your web page and to this point?
I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual put
up extraordinary. Fantastic job!

hey there and thank you for your info – I’ve definitely picked up something new from right here.
I did however expertise several technical issues using this web site, as I experienced to reload the website many times previous to I could get it to load
properly. I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish
loading instances times will very frequently affect your placement in google and could damage your high-quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.
Well I’m adding this RSS to my email and can look out
for a lot more of your respective fascinating content. Make sure you update this again very
soon.

I just want to tell you that I am just very new to weblog and certainly loved this website. Probably I’m likely to bookmark your site . You definitely have remarkable articles. Many thanks for sharing your website page.

That is very interesting, You are a very professional blogger.

I’ve joined your rss feed and look ahead to looking for more
of your fantastic post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks

I believe that avoiding packaged foods could be the first step in order to lose weight. They might taste great, but highly processed foods contain very little nutritional value, making you eat more just to have enough power to get over the day. In case you are constantly feeding on these foods, transferring to whole grain products and other complex carbohydrates will aid you to have more energy while ingesting less. Good blog post.

Today, with all the fast lifestyle that everyone leads, credit cards get this amazing demand in the economy. Persons out of every area of life are using the credit card and people who not using the credit cards have lined up to apply for just one. Thanks for giving your ideas on credit cards.

Great post. I was checking constantly this blog and
I’m impressed! Extremely useful info specially the last part 🙂 I care for such information much.

I was looking for this particular information for a very long time.
Thank you and best of luck.

I simply couldn’t go away your web site before suggesting that I really loved the standard information a person supply in your visitors? Is going to be back incessantly in order to inspect new posts

I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your blog.
It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out
a developer to create your theme? Superb work!

I just want to say I’m all new to blogging and honestly savored you’re blog site. Almost certainly I’m want to bookmark your blog . You certainly have very good articles and reviews. Appreciate it for sharing your web site.

Once again, light color tones make the room looks bigger and brighter. We suggest you pick colors like tans, light grays and light blues for the flooring of a smaller bathroom. By applying these light colors, together with the colors on the walls, your bathroom will appear bigger and roomier. A word to you: keep the light color flooring clean.

Aw, this is an extremely good post. In notion I would like to place in writing such as this additionally – taking time and actual effort to create a great article… but exactly what can I say… I procrastinate alot and also by no means appear to get something completed.

Aw, this was an extremely nice post. Taking the time and actual effort to make a great article… but what can I
say… I procrastinate a whole lot and never manage to get anything done.

We are a group of volunteers and starting a
brand new scheme in our community. Your website provided us with helpful info to work on. You have performed an impressive process and
our whole group will likely be thankful to you.

The the next occasion I just read a blog, Lets hope so it doesnt disappoint me about this one. Get real, It was my solution to read, but I personally thought youd have some thing intriguing to say. All I hear is often a bunch of whining about something that you could fix in case you werent too busy searching for attention.

May I just say what a comfort to uncover somebody who really understands what they’re talking about on the net. You certainly know how to bring an issue to light and make it important. A lot more people must look at this and understand this side of your story. I was surprised you aren’t more popular given that you certainly have the gift.

I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this website. I’m hoping to view the same high-grade blog posts from you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my very own blog now 😉

I discovered your blog website on google and check just a few of your early posts. Proceed to keep up the excellent operate. I simply additional up your RSS feed to my MSN Information Reader. Seeking forward to studying more from you later on!…

An added important area is that if you are a senior, travel insurance intended for pensioners is something you should make sure you really contemplate. The older you are, the greater at risk you are for permitting something poor happen to you while in foreign countries. If you are never covered by some comprehensive insurance cover, you could have a few serious problems. Thanks for sharing your good tips on this web blog.

Aw, this was a very nice post. In idea I would like to put in writing like this additionally – taking time and precise effort to make an excellent article… but what can I say… I procrastinate alot and on no account appear to get one thing done.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.