Categories
Известные лингвисты, филологи

Соссюр Фердинанд

СОССЮР ФЕРДИНАНД

Жизнь швейцарского учёного Фердинанда де Соссюра (1857-1813), внешне небогатая событиями, была полна внутреннего драматизма. К концу жизни все, включая самого учёного, считали его неудачником, ярко начавшим карьеру, но не оправдавшим надежд. Через несколько лет после смерти к Фердинанду де Соссюру пришла всемирная слава благодаря книге, которую он  не писал и не собирался писать.

Фердинанд де Соссюр родился во франкоязычной части Швейцарии недалеко от Женевы в семье, давшей миру выдающихся учёных, главным образом геологов и биологов. Интерес юноши к языку и его законам определил выбор университета. В 70-х годах 19 века главной областью занятий Соссюра считалась индоевропеистика, а все лучшие учёные  работали в Лейпциге. И Соссюр поехал туда учиться. Он очень быстро овладел всеми премудростями индоевропейского языка и в 20 лет (случай небывалый в мировой лингвистике) написал большую по объёму и важную по значению книгу «Мемуар о первоначальной системе гласных в индоевропейских языках», которая была издана в 1879 году. В ней Соссюр предложил совершенно новые,  опережавшие время идеи. Исходя  лишь из соображений системности языка, он выдвинул гипотезу о существовании в праиндоевропейском языке особых фонем, которые не сохранились ни в одном известном языке, но  повлияли на произношение соседних гласных. Соссюр назвал эти фонемы ларингалами (от греческого глотка). Уже после смерти Фердинанда де Соссюра оказалось, что во вновь открытом хеттском языке, одном из древнейших известных нам  индоевропейских, ещё сохранялся один из ларингалов. Кстати, именно из этой книги  Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ взял термин «фонема», придав ему новый смысл.

Однако книга принесла Соссюру не только известность,  но и много неприятностей. Ведущие учёные Германии не приняли идей Фердинанда  де Соссюра, сочтя их слишком смелыми. Его труд подвергли уничтожающей критике. Защитив диссертацию, Соссюр покинул негостеприимную Германию и переехал в Париж, где работал более десяти лет, а затем вернулся в родную Женеву и до конца жизни  преподавал в Женевском университете. Соссюр написал немного, а опубликовал ещё меньше.

Юношеский труд остался единственной изданной при жизни книгой. Ранняя известность была забыта. Умер Фердинанд де Соссюр  сравнительно рано. А в 1916 году, через три года после его кончины,  появился  «Курс общей лингвистики», обессмертивший его имя. Фердинанд де Соссюр не собирался издавать  книгу пока

его идеи не приобретут  «завершённые формы». Лишь под конец  жизни Соссюр стал вести курс общей лингвистики. Он трижды прочёл этот курс, импровизируя перед студентами и часто придумывая что-то новое на ходу. Например, на одной лекции он сказал студентам: «Давайте зачеркнём термины «понятие» и «акустический знак» и заменим их  на «означаемое» и «означающее».

Сегодня без двух последних терминов невозможно представить лингвистику. Когда Фердинанд де Соссюр умер, двое его коллег по университету, – крупные лингвисты Шарль Балли и  Альбер Сеше решили в память о нём издать этот курс. Они собрали  у студентов конспекты, свели на основе их трижды прочитанный курс в один, кое-что добавили от себя и издали труд  под именем старшего коллеги, хотя авторов на самом деле было трое.

«Курс общей лингвистики» Фердинанда де Соссюра очень скоро стал известен во всём мире и был переведён на многие языки. Часто его называют важнейшим лингвистическим трудом 20 века. Самое большое впечатление произвели три идеи Соссюра: о разграничении языка и речи, языке как системе знаков и различии синхронии и диахронии. Языкознание 20 века убедилось в коренном различии между двумя понятиями, предложенными  Фердинандом де Соссюром, – языком и речью. Перед лингвистами встал вопрос: является ли текст явлением языка или речи? Где его место? В своё время Соссюр сравнивал людей со словарями. Можно провести аналогию между  людьми и текстами: каждый из них неповторим. Также неповторим и важнейший лингвистический труд Фердинанда де Соссюра.

83 replies on “Соссюр Фердинанд”

“We were a bit nervous when we landed because we weren’t sure what health checks we had to do or what it was going to be like, but everything was fine,” Burton says.

The new friends then flew to Cappadocia, an area of unusual landscape formations in central Turkey, where they stayed in a cave hotel and enjoyed a hot air balloon ride. From there they went to the coastal town of Kusadasi, where they went paragliding and visited hot springs.

“We’ve talked about meeting when we get back because we’re only a two-hour flight from each other. It’s quite easy for both of us to get a flight to Florida as well, so we might meet there.”

“We’ve definitely formed a good friendship. We’ve also talked about taking more trips together. I’ve already booked a trip to Spain with my mom next May and Therese said she might join.

“In fact, we have even discussed setting up a business together to help others find great deals and travel buddies. We’re going to name it Vacation Pursuit. So, watch this space!”

Hamilton took the lead from his Mercedes teammate and polesitter Valtteri Bottas early in the 60-lap race at the famous German circuit and dominated proceedings without serious challenge from second-placed Max Verstappen in the Red Bull.

I just want to say I’m all new to blogging and truly enjoyed your web-site. Probably I’m likely to bookmark your site . You surely have beneficial well written articles. With thanks for revealing your website.

Hello there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

I just want to tell you that I’m beginner to blogging and site-building and actually savored your web blog. Almost certainly I’m planning to bookmark your site . You definitely have very good article content. Appreciate it for revealing your blog site.

Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is fundamental and all. However think of if you added some great graphics or videos to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and clips, this blog could undeniably be one of the very best in its niche. Fantastic blog!

Hi this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

from Walton County, Fayette County and Floyd County, and those batches netted about 1,000 votes for Trump. Officials have stressed that these mishaps were caused by human error and are not indicative of vote-rigging or widespread fraud.

Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you’re just too wonderful. I actually like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still take care of to keep it smart. I cant wait to read much more from you. This is actually a tremendous site.

The subsequent time I read a blog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. I imply, I do know it was my option to read, however I actually thought youd have something fascinating to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about one thing that you would repair should you werent too busy on the lookout for attention.

I just want to tell you that I’m all new to weblog and certainly savored your web site. Almost certainly I’m planning to bookmark your blog post . You absolutely come with great posts. Thanks a bunch for sharing your web site.

After study many of the web sites with your internet site now, and i also genuinely such as your technique of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark site list and you will be checking back soon. Pls have a look at my site at the same time and figure out if you agree.

After I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the same comment. Is there an easy method you can remove me from that service? Appreciate it.

Good post here. One thing I’d like to say is most professional areas consider the Bachelor’s Degree just as the entry level requirement for an online certification. Even though Associate Qualifications are a great way to begin with, completing the Bachelors starts up many opportunities to various jobs, there are numerous online Bachelor Diploma Programs available by institutions like The University of Phoenix, Intercontinental University Online and Kaplan. Another issue is that many brick and mortar institutions offer Online versions of their degree programs but generally for a drastically higher price than the providers that specialize in online degree programs.

Boa noite amigos, com certeza mandar um SMS grátis está cada vez mais trabalhoso devido falta de opções das operadoras de telefone. Há ainda os websites que prometem entregar meu SMS mas nem sempre chegam recepiente final. Alguns como o Mundo oi e o Oi Torpedo funcionam mas e para as outras operadoras? E os que dizem que enviam e nada chega. Para onde está indo as meus SMS? E para a Tim, Vivo? Alguma Idéia? Ou significa ter de comprar?. É só um desabafo, realmente está difícil achar serviços para mandar SMS barato.

Right here is the perfect webpage for anybody who hopes to understand this topic. You realize so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a fresh spin on a topic which has been discussed for years. Excellent stuff, just excellent.

Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Thank you, However I am experiencing troubles with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting the same RSS issues? Anyone who knows the solution will you kindly respond? Thanks.

Hey there, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your blog site in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, wonderful blog!

Greetings! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

Good day! This is kind of off topic but I need some help from an established blog. Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have any points or suggestions? With thanks

Thanks for another magnificent article. Where else could anyone get that kind of information in such an ideal way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such information.

I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The issue is an issue that too few people are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy that I stumbled across this in my search for something relating to this.

I do like the manner in which you have framed this specific situation plus it really does give us some fodder for consideration. Nevertheless, because of everything that I have witnessed, I simply just wish as the remarks stack on that individuals continue to be on point and in no way embark upon a tirade of some other news du jour. Anyway, thank you for this fantastic point and whilst I do not really concur with it in totality, I regard the standpoint.

I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s equally educative and engaging, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy I came across this during my hunt for something relating to this.

I’ve been exploring for a bit for any high-quality articles or blog posts on this sort of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this website. Reading this information So i’m happy to convey that I have an incredibly good uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I most certainly will make sure to do not forget this web site and give it a look regularly.

After research just a few of the blog posts in your web site now, and I truly like your manner of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website listing and might be checking again soon. Pls try my website online as effectively and let me know what you think.

Hello there! I could have sworn I’ve been to your blog before but after going through many of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m certainly happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back often!

I’m impressed, I must say. Really not often do I encounter a blog that’s each educative and entertaining, and let me inform you, you might have hit the nail on the head. Your concept is excellent; the issue is something that not sufficient persons are talking intelligently about. I am very glad that I stumbled throughout this in my seek for one thing relating to this.

Oh my goodness! an incredible article dude. Thank you Nonetheless I am experiencing subject with ur rss . Don’t know why Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting equivalent rss drawback? Anyone who is aware of kindly respond. Thnkx

Thank you for sharing excellent informations. Your site is so cool. I am impressed by the details that you’ve on this blog. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles. You, my pal, ROCK! I found simply the info I already searched all over the place and just could not come across. What a great site.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.