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Лингвистические термины

Речь

Речь – конкретное говорение, протекающее во времени и облечённое в звуковую или письменную форму. Под речью понимают как сам процесс говорения (речевую деятельность), так и его результат (речевые произведения, фиксируемые памятью или письмом).

Характеристика речи обычно даётся через  противопоставление её языку (коду), который понимается как система объективно существующих, социально закреплённых знаков. Речь и язык (код) образуют единый феномен человеческого языка и каждого конкретного языка, взятого в определённом его состоянии. Речь – воплощение, реализация языка (кода), который обнаруживает себя в речи и только через неё выполняет свои  коммуникативные функции. Если язык – это орудие (средство) общения, то речь есть  производимый этим орудием  вид общения. Речь конкретна и неповторима в отличие от абстрактности и воспроизводимости языка. Речь актуальна, язык же потенциален. Речь развёртывается во времени и реализуется в пространстве; она бесконечна, материальна и состоит из артикулируемых знаков, воспринимаемых чувствами (слухом, зрением, осязанием). Речь активна, динамична, подвижна, линейна. В отличие от языка, который является достоянием общества, речь субъективна и является видом свободной творческой деятельности индивида.

Процесс речи характеризуется определённым темпом, продолжительностью, тембровыми особенностями, степенью громкости, чёткостью артикуляции, акцентом и т.д. Речь может быть охарактеризована через указание на психологическое состояние говорящего, его коммуникативную задачу, отношение к собеседнику, искренность по признакам своей структуры. Индивидуальный характер – важнейший признак речи; субъективность её проявляется в том, что речь имеет автора, который передаёт в ней свои мысли и чувства, для выражения которых он подбирает слова и структуры предложений. Речевое поведение составляет существенную характеристику личности.

Речь тесно связана с мышлением; различают два вида речи – теоретическое и практическое рассуждение. Каждый из этих видов речи обладает особыми признаками. Речь используется в разных социальных сферах и выполняет разные функции, она приспосабливается к задачам и условиям. Возможности варьирования речи не беспредельны, она должна быть понята адресатом. Ключом к восприятию речи служит общий для собеседников, надиндивидуальный язык. В речевом общении может быть выделен ряд аспектов, соответствующих поставленной задаче: информативный, прескриптивный (воздействие на адресата), экспрессивный, межличностный, игровой и др. Речь как один из видов  социальной активности человека переплетается с другими формами деятельности, в том числе трудовой, в процессе осуществления которой она и возникла.  Речь полифункциональна и с этой точки зрения исследуется прагматикой. Подход к речи как форме деятельности характерен для социологических и психолингвистических исследований, изучающих процессы и механизмы речеобразования, возникновение речевых ошибок и нарушений речи.

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