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Лингвистические термины

Наречие

Наречие – лексико-грамматический класс неизменяемых, как правило, слов, обозначающих признак действия качества или предмета и выступающих в синтаксической функции обстоятельства или определения, реже сказуемого. Наречие как часть речи определяется совокупностью морфологических, синтаксических и семантических признаков.

К основным морфологическим признакам наречия относятся: отсутствие словоизменения, лексическая и словообразовательная соотносительность со всеми основными классами  знаменательных слов, наличие особого морфемного инвентаря, используемого при образовании наречий. С точки зрения исторической морфологии, наречия делятся на местоименные,  именные и глагольные. Наиболее архаичный тип – местоименные наречия, утратившие  морфологическую  членимость. Большинство именных наречий возникло из застывших падежных форм, получивших самостоятельное значение. Большую группу составляют наречия, образованные от аккузатива: «тотчас», «много». Некоторые наречия представляют собой застывшие предложно-падежные формы, например, «издавна», «вдоль». Наречия также могут восходить к глагольным формам: «почти», «быстро».

По своей словообразовательной структуре наречия делятся на мотивированные и немотивированные. Для первой группы наречий характерна  отчётливая соотносительность  с другими разрядами знаменательных слов. Внутри мотивированных наречий выделяется группа регулярных образований (так называемые грамматические наречия), имеющих явно выраженный формальный признак. К регулярным способам образования наречий в некоторых языках относится редупликация «самовольно», «постоянно». К немотивированным  относятся наречия, утратившие соотносительность с живыми грамматическими классами и разрядами слов («где», «когда»).

По своему лексическому значению все наречия делятся на два лексико- грамматических разряда: качественные и обстоятельственные. В наречиях первого типа представлены разнообразные  частные виды общего значения качественности и свойственности («быстро», «по-нашему», «дыбом»). Особую группу составляют количественные наречия, обозначающие степень качества и интенсивности действия («едва-едва», «нисколько», «слишком»). Наречия обладают  морфологической категорией степеней сравнения – двучленной, трёхчленной и превосходной. В плане выражения  возможны как синтетические, так и аналитические формы степеней сравнения «выше всех». На примере качественных наречий особенно заметно  родство наречий с прилагательным, которое определяется их общим значением признака. Формальное отличие имени прилагательного от наречия основывается на согласовательной способности прилагательного.

Там, где этот формальный признак  отсутствует, граница между наречием и прилагательным зачастую оказывается стёртой («хороший» – «хорошо»).

Обстоятельственные наречия обозначают признак, внешний  по отношению к его носителю. Обстоятельственные наречия распределяются на группы по семантическим признакам. К основным  семантическим группам относятся следующие: наречия места («далеко», «никуда»); наречия времени («когда», «ночью»); наречия причины («сгоряча»); наречия цели («назло», «нарочно»).

В языке  легко осуществляется  переход от качественных наречий к обстоятельственным наречиям. Наречия выполняют основные синтаксические функции: 1)определительная – способность наречий  определять глагол, имя, другое наречие, целое предложение. 2) способность выступать в качестве компонента составного глагольного сказуемого.

Качественные и обстоятельственные наречия обладают различными комбинаторными свойствами. В русском языке  чисто качественные наречия определяют только глагол (включая причастия и деепричастия), прилагательное и наречие. Качественные наречия не могут сочетаться с именами существительными.

Несмотря на ограниченность формальных способов образования наречий, эта категория слов в языке  постоянно пополняется. При этом в разряд наречий переходят предложные конструкции, фразеологические сочетания, а также многочисленные адвербиальные выражения, например, «ни с того ни с сего». На периферии наречий находятся смешанные категории слов: наречия-союзы, наречия-предлоги и другие. По синтаксической функции к наречиям примыкают деепричастия.  Как самостоятельная часть речи  наречие было выделено  ещё в античной грамматике, с тех пор наречие изучалось известными  лингвистами различных школ.

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