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Метонимия

Метонимия (от греческого metonymia – переименование) – троп или механизм речи, состоящий в регулярном или  окказиональном переносе имени с одного класса объектов или единичного объекта на другой класс или отдельный предмет, который ассоциируется с ним по смежности, сопредельности, вовлечённости  в одну ситуацию. Основой метонимии могут служить пространственные, событийные, понятийные, синтагматические и логические отношения между различными категориями, принадлежащими действительности и её отражению в человеческом сознании. Это сознание закреплено значениями слов – между предметами, лицами, действиями, процессами, явлениями, социальными институтами и событиями, местом, временем.

Название может быть перенесено: 1) с вместилища на содержимое или объём содержимого «блюдо» – «большая тарелка», «стакан» – «сосуд для питья» и «мера жидких и сыпучих масс»; 2) с материала на изделие из него, например, «медь» как металл и как «медные деньги»; 3) с места населённого пункта на совокупность его жителей или связанное с ним событие, например: «Вся деревня над ним смеялась»; 5) с формы выражения содержания на само содержание, например: «толстая книга» относится к предмету, а «интересная книга» – к содержанию; 6) с отрасли знания, науки на  предмет науки и наоборот, например «грамматика как строй языка и как изучающий его раздел языкознания; 7) с социального события мероприятия на его участников, например, «Конференция состоится в мае» и «Конференция приняла важное решение»; 8) с социальной организации учреждения на совокупность его сотрудников и помещение, сравните: «ремонтировать фабрику» и «фабрика забастовала»; 9) с целого на часть и наоборот, например:

«груша» как дерево и как плод;10) с эмоционального состояния на его причину, например: «ужас», «страх» и «ужасное событие»; 11) имя автора может использоваться для обозначения его произведений или созданной им модели, стиля: «читать, издавать Толстого».

Отражая постоянное взаимодействие объектов, категорий, понятий, метонимия становится регулярной и создаёт семантические модели многозначных слов и словообразовательных типов, которые часто совмещают принципиально разные типы значения: признаковые,  событийные и предметные.

Метонимия порождается механизмами синтагматических преобразований. Метонимия регулярно возникает на базе словосочетания или предложения и является результатом эллиптического сокращения текста. Метонимия обычно сохраняет ту или иную степень ограниченности условиями употребления, не создавая нового контекстуально независимого значения имени: «В музее есть два Рембрандта» (в значении два полотна Рембрандта), но нельзя сказать «На одном Рембрандте изображена…».

Если называемая метонимией деталь типична для многих индивидов, то метонимия может закрепиться в языке в качестве обозначения социальной категории лиц, сравните «лапоть» применительно к крестьянам дореволюционной России.

Преимущественное употребление метонимии для идентификации предмета речи связывает её  с синтаксическими позициями обращения, подлежащего и дополнений. Ситуативная метонимия  не употребляется в позиции сказуемого, т.е. не выполняет  характеризующей функции.

Метонимизация имени обычно не отражается на нормах его грамматического и семантического согласования, сравните: «Шляпа вздрогнула» (речь идёт о мужчине). Метонимическое имя редко принимает определения, относящиеся к его денотату. Нельзя сказать «красивый тулуп», имея в  виду свойство лица, а не тулупа.

Употребление метонимий может быть либо конситуативно свободным, либо наталкиваться на семантические, синтаксические и ситуативные ограничения. В соответствии с этим следует различать: 1) собственно лексическую, номинативную метонимию, 2) конструктивно связанную метонимию, 3) ситуативно обусловленную метонимию, которую по функции можно назвать идентифицирующей.

216 replies on “Метонимия”

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