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Известные лингвисты, филологи

Фортунатов Филипп Фёдорович

ФОРТУНАТОВФортунатов Филипп Фёдорович (1848-1914) родился в семье педагога – директора Петрозаводской гимназии. Поступив на историко-филологический факультет Московского университета,  Фортунатов увлечённо занимался сравнительно-историческим языкознанием, изучал древнеиндийские памятники письменности.В 1876 году Фортунатов  был избран профессором  кафедры сравнительно- исторической грамматики индоевропейских языков и началась  его педагогическая деятельность в Московском  университете. Работая здесь, Фортунатов создал целую систему преподавания лингвистических дисциплин для подготовки специалистов по сравнительно-историческому языкознанию. Исследования в этих направлениях могли проводить лишь высококвалифицированные специалисты. Фортунатов считал, что  для этого необходимо овладеть основными, так называемыми, опорными языками: древнеиндийским, древнегреческим, латинским, старославянским и литовским. По всем этим языкам велись специальные занятия, читались общие теоретические курсы. Лекции Фортунатова отличались  глубиной мысли  и содержали богатейший  фактический материал. На его учении выросла  Московская  фортунатовская школа в языкознании, или Московская лингвистическая школа. Научная деятельность Фортунатова началась с изучения литовских говоров (1871) и древнейших памятников письменности ведического языка и санскрита. Магистерская  диссертация Фортунатова включала в себя критическое издание, перевод и комментарий текста памятника, а также «Приложение», где излагались фундаментальные положения сравнительно-исторического метода.Фортунатов выдвинул положение о том, что праиндоевропейский язык, как и всякий  живой язык, «должен был иметь за собой богатую историю и диалектное членение», дал критику бытовавшего  преувеличения значения данных санскрита и другихиндийских письменных источников. Фортунатову  принадлежит ведущая роль в создании систематических сравнительно-исторических грамматик индоевропейских языков, где он развивал взгляды на язык как систему. Фортунатов строго различал описательные и исторические подходы (синхронию и диахронию), он отдавал предпочтение  свидетельству живой народной речи.Фортунатов признавал сравнение средством реконструкции предшествующего состояния с целью выявления истории конкретного языка. Он призывал искать «законы, управляющие фактами», «взаимосвязь и причины исследуемых явлений». Из целостной концепции Фортунатова вытекает постулат безысключительности фонетических законов и связанная с ним методика установления относительности хронологии.Положение о взаимосвязи истории языка с историей общества Фортунатов  углублял требованием разграничивать внешние и внутренние связи  и причинность .Фортунатову  принадлежит ряд открытий  в области сравнительно-исторической грамматики  индоевропейских и славянских языков: теория сонатов, лабиальный ряд задненёбных, состав вокализма индоевропейских языков, слабая ступень чередований, связь долготы и характера интонации, закон переноса ударения в балтийских и славянских языках.Теория Фортунатова о  форме слова как результате «живых соотношений» и различия их «формальной принадлежности», «существующих в данном языке в данную эпоху» положила начало разграничению форм словоизменения и словообразования. Фортунатов строго разграничивал внешнюю и внутреннюю формы в учении о грамматических категориях и разрядах слов. Всё это легло в основу современной морфологии, оформившейся в самостоятельную  научную дисциплину. Ещё в 1882-1883 годахФортунатов ввёл термин морфология  вместо  бытовавшей в то время этимологии и разработал учение о форме слова. Фортунатов  превратил морфологию в самостоятельную дисциплину об устройстве морфологического яруса языка. Учение Фортунатова о форме слова опиралось на реально существующее в языке  материальное выражение этой формы. Форма слова могла быть установлена только там, где она материально представлена.Это не давало возможности фантазировать, рассуждая о языке. Фортунатов считал, что язык – это строгая система, в которой всё взаимосвязано и взаимообусловлено, а её закономерности можно строго обосновать и проверить. Фортунатов считал, что слово имеет форму, если в нём можно выделить основу, с которой связано его  главное значение (Фортунатов называл его реальным), и аффикс, выражающий формальное значение. Формальное значение как-то видоизменяет или уточняет реальное значение.Учение Фортунатова о грамматической форме  вызвало в лингвистике  шквал плодотворных идей, оно было продолжено его учениками. Фортунатовская морфология, его учение о форме слова заложили фундамент нового лингвистического мировоззрения, нацеленного на поиск внутренних,  собственно лингвистических связей, закономерностей в языке. Идеи и методы лингвистической науки, разработанные Фортунатовым и его школой, будучи апробированными  на материале русского и славянских языков, были перенесены  в финно-угроведение, тюркологию, кавказоведение, германистику и другие направления лингвистики.

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