Лингвистические термины


Антонимы (от греческого аnti – против и onymа – имя) – слова одной части речи, имеющие противоположные значения. Далеко не все слова могут иметь антонимы. Для этого в самом  значении слов  должна быть заложена возможность антонима. У слов, которые обозначают конкретные предметы, нет антонимов, например, шкаф, стол, варенье. Антонимы имеют в основном качественные прилагательные и наречия и значительно реже – существительные и глаголы.

В зависимости от выражения  типа противоположности антонимы разделяются на соответствующие классы, основные из которых

1) антонимы, выражающие качественную противоположность. Такие антонимы выражают ступенчатые оппозиции: «лёгкий» (простой, пустяковый) – «нетрудный», «средней трудности», «нелёгкий»  – «трудный». В русском языке качественные прилагательные с приставками не-, без- являются антонимами только в том случае, если они представляют собой предельные, крайние члены антонимической  парадигмы «культурный» – («не совсем культурный») – «некультурный».

2) антонимы, выражающие дополнительность (комплементарность). Антонимы представлены двумя противоположными членами, дополняющими друг друга до целого, так что отрицание одного даёт значение другого: «не+истинный»= ложный.

3) антонимы, выражающие противоположную направленность действий, признаков и свойств. Эта противоположность  в языке основана на логически противоположных понятиях: «собирать» – «разбирать», «зажигать» – «гасить».

По своей структуре антонимы делятся на разнокоренные («хороший» – «плохой») и однокоренные («входить» – «выходить»). Особую непродуктивную разновидность антонимов образуют слова, совмещающие в себе противоположные значения: «одолжить» – 1)»дать в долг» и 2) «взять в долг». Это явление  называется внутрисловной антонимией, или энантиосемией.

Антонимы часто используют, чтобы подчеркнуть  контраст между понятиями. На противопоставлении антонимов построены многие русские пословицы и поговорки: «Сытый  голодного не разумеет»; названия художественных произведений «Что такое хорошо и что такое плохо?» Антонимы способствуют  также  выразительности поэтической речи.

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