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Лингвистические термины

Пароним

Паронимия (от греческого слова Раrа – около и оnymа – имя) – явление частичного звукового сходства слов (паронимов) при их семантическом различии (полном или частичном). Проблема паронимии возникает как следствие преднамеренного сближения или непреднамеренного смешения (тогда это речевая ошибка) паронимов в речи. Термин пароним  предложил Аристотель, который назвал так производные слова.

В 60-70-х годах 20 века сложилось понимание паронимов как однокорневых слов, принадлежащих к одной части речи («болотный» – болотистый», «выплата – оплата-плата»). Однако некоторые учёные считают паронимами только такие однокорневые слова, тождественные по грамматическим (морфологическим) свойствам, которые имеют созвучные префиксы и общее место ударения. Структурное сходство паронимов обусловливает их известную смысловую соотносительность. Однокорневые слова, относящиеся к одной части речи, образуют паронимические ряды закрытого характера.

В речи  в целях специального сближения или вследствие случайного смешения, как правило, сопоставляются однокорневые слова одного и того же или близких понятийно-предметных планов.

При сопоставлении паронимов акцент делается на их семантических различиях, в связи  с чем выясняются их сочетательные возможности. Всё это придаёт паронимии системный характер на уровне  идеографии, словообразования, лексической сочетаемости. Паронимы по-разному сочетаются с другими словами (это вполне естественно: значения у них разные, поэтому и смысловые связи с соседями в предложении не могут быть одинаковыми). Паронимы в языке явление скорее нежелательное, чем полезное, своего рода помеха для говорящих.

Однако паронимы существуют  во многих языках, поэтому  их надо чётко различать по смыслу и правильно употреблять.

Паронимы рассматриваются в  учении о культуре речи. Паронимы иногда называют  словарными, в отличие  от паронимов контекстных, или поэтических, которые имеют любое звуковое подобие («контузить – конфузить»). Под паронимией  в этом случае понимается непреднамеренное смешение (речевая ошибка) или специальное сближение сходных по звучанию слов. В паронимиии существуют более узкие её трактовки: 1) как сближение только разнокорневых слов; 2) как явления народной этимологии.

Паронимы можно различать и так: вместо каждого паронима подставлять близкое ему по смыслу слово. Эти подстановочные слова никогда не совпадут. Так, например, вместо  экономный хозяин  можно сказать  рачительный хозяин; вместо экономичный способ литья – выгодный способ литья. Разница между паронимами экономный  и экономичный становится очевидной.

В  западно-европейской филологической традиции представлено более узкое понимание паронимов:  в работах по культуре речи для обозначения паронимов нередко пользуются термином «смешение» или включают их  в более общее понятие  «ошибочного, неверного» словоупотребления.

Примеры паронимов:

АБОНЕМЕНТНЫЙ – АБОНЕНТНЫЙ – АБОНЕНТСКИЙ

Абонементный – относящийся к абонементу, связанный с ним. Абонементный концерт. Абонементный талон (в автобусе, троллейбусе, трамвае). Абонементная книжка (состоящаяя из абонементных талонов).

Абонетный – относящийся к абоненту (тому, кто пользуется абонементом), связанный с ним. Абонентный номер (номер абонента). Абонентный отдел. Абонентная плата (плата абонента).

Абонентский – то же, что абонентный. Абонентская книжка (плата за электроэнергию). Абонентский ящик (для поступающих писем). Абонентская плата (плата абонента).

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